Three Pathways for Kidney Stone Formation          All kidney stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. These clinical similarities have made it difficult for researchers to development treatments plans to successfully arrest stone formation for a specific stone former. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation differs greatly depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general pathways for kidney stone formation (Figure 1) are seen: 1) stones fixed to the … Continued

IMCD and BD plugs: Do they have a role in stone formation?

Between stone attacks, one can forget about the importance of prevention. So much water, pills, and nothing happens. This new post shows very new research done over the past decade or so, mainly by us, which shows that the tiny tubules of the kidneys can become plugged with calcium phosphate crystals. Fortunately kidney function appears to remain intact, but there is cell injury and inflammation. No one knows right now if stone prevention treatments will also prevent these plugs, but since the plugs form at the very ends of the renal tubules, where the final urine exits into the renal pelvis, one would think that whatever reduces crystal formation in the urine will reduce plugging.