Table of Contents to the Kidney Stone Book

This site is, in fact, a web book about kidney stones. I have not said so up until now because the book has been written, so to speak, in public view and I prefered to let the site appear like a blog until there was enough written. If you look at the table of contents you will see the articles to now have been about the common elements of all stones – supersaturation, stone structure and analysis, tissue mechanisms of formation, and only one kind of stone forming patient – the idiopathic calcium stone former, one who has no systemic disease causing stones. That part of the book is now complete enough to stand, albeit missing still a few elements shown in unbolded black font rather than as true links. Missing altogether is the systemic diseases, a large and complex matter that I plan to now begin. You might ask why I did not just write a book. I have, multiple times, and respect their virtues – convenience, attractiveness, availability. But now the web offers all this plus hypertext and ongoing revision. Some important comprehensive medical books have long been online for this very reason. This one be among the early examples of a book so specialized designed for the web as a prime motive. 


Use The Table of Contents to find articles within the framework of stone disease entire.

If you are already familiar with stone disease use Quick links, below, to browse by interest category.



Kidney Stones

What is In It?

What stones are Structure of stones
Matrix of Stones The organic part of stones
Types of stones A primer showing stone types
Stone analyses How it is done; how often is it needed
Quality of stone analysis Flaws in commercial labs
Nephrocalcinosis A radiological term easily misunderstood
Stones Themselves  A review of several articles on stones
Pain from Stones  How stones cause pain
Theory of Stone disease A sketch of the whole field



What is In It?

The Science of the Kidney Stone Diet Evidence for the kidney stone diet
The Kidney Stone Diet Best diet for stone prevention
The Science and Politics of the US Diet Guidelines From 1977 to 2020 – scandal, politics, how to eat
How to Eat the Kidney Stone Diet Special aspects of the kidney stone diet
How to Eat a Low Salt Diet How to shop and select for low sodium diet
The Low Oxalate Diet Our best oxalate lists and how to use them
High Calcium Low Sodium Diet Our best list of the best bargains
How Much Protein Should you Eat Does protein cause stones or bone disease?
How Much Fluid is Enough How supersaturation varies with urine flow
Variety of Fluids Fluid options and how to plan a day
How to Drink enough Tips on ways to make high fluids a pleasure
The Low Flows What makes some people avoid fluids
ACP Fluid Guidelines  Faulty but useful
Does Water Prevent Stones – What’s your Bet? Review of water trial data



What is In It?

Cost of potassium citrate How to lower the cost of alkali treatment
Stone prevention by citrate How citrate prevents stones
Thiazide to Prevent Stones  The drugs and how they work
Ureteroscopy New techniques vs. old ones
Prevention of Calcium stones The treatment trials and what they say
ACP  Med Guidelines Faulty but useful
Rebuke of ACP Guidelines Critique by an expert
Coke Treatment Probably nonsense but popular on the web



What is In It?

Putting it all together The whole process of prevention
5 Steps to Stone Prevention Details of the stages in evaluation and treatment
How to Be a Successful Patient Organize properly for medical visits
Take Charge of Stone Prevention A summary with emphasis on diet management
How To Do 24 Hr Urines The central test: Common mistakes you can avoid
Web apps & smart bottles Are fancy new devices worthwhile?
24 hr urines – Ca Stones How to read your own tests
24 hr urines – UA Stones How to read your own tests
My Lab Report: 5 Questions How treatment follows test results
Style of Practice My personal clinical approach to stone prevention
Assessment of Plaque CT estimate of kidney calcium deposits


How Stones Form

What is In It?

Video: How Stones Form Crystal formation in kidneys
Growth on Plaque Tissue calcium deposits anchor growing stones
Tubule Plugging Crystals plug nephrons; stones overgrow
Medullary Sponge Kidney A disease with tiny crystals in cysts
Role of Immunity Innate immune system and plaque



What is In It?

An Introduction A simple explanation and home experiment
Video: Supersaturation Serious but narration makes things easier
Use of Supersaturation Role in clinical practice
Why Use 24 Hour Urines?  Benefit of 24 hour urine averages
Science of Supersaturation Review of selected scientific papers
Supersaturation  A review of multiple articles


Urine Risk Factors

What is In It?

Oxalate Physiology  Control of Urine Oxalate
Hypercalciuria in General Idiopathic and from systemic diseases
Idiopathic Hypercalciuria Pathophysiology of IH
How Salt Works Sodium physiology BP and IH
Salt Stones and Bones  Bone disease in IH and role of sodium
How Citrate Works Physiology of urine citrate regulation
Calcium binding Importance of citrate calcium binding
Crystal Inhibition Citrate effects on stone crystals
Citrate and Metastable limits  Citrate inhibition of crystal formation
Dr. Charles Pak An homage to a founder of citrate usage



What is In It?

CaOx Stone Formers General appearance – plaque emphasized
Phosphate Stone Formers Plugging, young women predominate
Medullary Sponge Kidney Case 4: A patient with MSK, shows OR and tissues



How Stones Form

What is In It?

Cystinuria A general overview



Science and medicine

What is In It?

Three Medical Sciences  Discovery, trials, and diagnosis
Science in medicine Basic science in clinical practice
Applied Medical Science  The scientific basis of trials
 Science Marries Medicine Stone disease as an instance