If the lives of the Tudor nobility were luxurious, they were dangerous in equal proportions, for the King who bestowed their riches could in a moment wipe them, and those who possessed them, out. So intimacy with the person of the King and with the whole Royal Family was prized and feared. They lived, these powerful and dangerous people, in their Royal Palaces, to which you must go or have no influence. Even worse, King and Consorts made Royal Progresses, staying here and there as guests of the high nobility. Imagine that, the King as your houseguest. A person, like any other, and yet not at all like any other: glamorous, dangerous, and involved with high concerns. You could say this is a silly preface … Continued

IMCD and BD plugs: Do they have a role in stone formation?

In contrast to the almost normal appearing (except for sites of interstitial plaque) kidneys of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF), our biopsy and mapping studies that now include ten additional kidney stone forming phenotypes (see Table 1), reveals striking changes in the renal medulla noted by both endoscopic and histopathology characterized by crystalline deposits in the lumens of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), and ducts of Bellini (BD) (Figure 1), with less evidence of damage in the cortex. Figure 1. Illustration showing a BD plug/overgrowth complex and other sites of crystalline deposition alone the nephron in human kidney stone formers. A crystalline deposit is noted plugging a BD and at the urinary end it is covered with an overgrowth … Continued