Here, stones are due to some serious systemic disease. We need to prevent them, but that invariably requires we cope with the disease that causes them.
One could rightly say that uric acid stones fall in this category in that the low urine pH that drives them arises usually from obesity, diabetes, gout, or at least metabolic syndrome. But in all cases treatment devolves into simple increase of urine pH, and one does not cope with the underlying disease.
Likewise for cystinuria. It arises from inherited transport abnormalities in the kidney proximal tubule. Once again, we cannot treat those abnormalities but only the final urine cystine concentration and therefore supersaturation. Even so, renal function tends to fall more in cystinuria than most other forms of stone disease, so I list it here.
Medullary sponge kidney is also hard to be sure about. A developmental renal malformation, it nevertheless has been described in association with other diseases and so is included here, as well.
Systemic Stone Disease
Chapter 12: Distal renal tubular acidosis – Detailed, but also clinically useful
Chapter 7: Primary Hyperparathyroidism – Covers diagnosis and treatment
Primary Hyperparathyroidism – A detailed review including familial disease
Chapter 10: Bariatric surgery and kidney stones – Mechanisms and treatment
Case 6: Bariatric surgery and kidney injury – How to protect against oxalate kidney injury
The diagnostic dilemma of medullary sponge kidney – Stones occur because of abnormal kidney structure
Chapter 11: Ileostomy Kidney Stones – Mechanisms of stones and treatment