How Stones Form

This is a very long list as much of the site concerns this topic. I have separated the clinical materials from these articles except for a few obvious overlap areas.

For example urine volume, calcium, oxalate, and citrate control supersaturation and the topic is here and in the lists of treatments and diagnostic findings.

Because it is complex I have added headers for guidance.

The photo shows kidney stones inside a kidney with Medullary Sponge Kidney. It is from our research laboratories. 

Stones Themselves

What kidney stones are – Very brief introduction

Kidney stone overview – An excellent stroll through kidney stone land

Kidney stone types – Detailed review of the minerals revealed by analysis of your stones

Supersaturation

What it is, how measured

Supersaturation – Easy introduction

Supersaturation and the stone crystals – Very detailed science of supersaturation

Video article: Supersaturation – The calcium crystals – Three charming videos I made for you

Walking Tour: Supersaturation – Multiple articles gathered together with commentary

Supersaturations match kidney stones – For serious reading, but I like it a lot

Clinical Supersaturation – Physician oriented but can be read by anyone

Mechanisms causing uric acid stones – Special case of supersaturation from acid urine

Causes of High Supersaturation

Idiopathic Hypercalciuria (IH) – Genetic, special treatment issues

Hypercalciuria – Reviews many causes of hypercalciuria beside IH

Control of urine oxalate excretion – How this cause of high supersaturation works

Urine CitrateLow citrate raises urine supersaturation

Clinical Use of Supersaturation

Clinical supersaturation – Physician oriented but can be read by anyone

Fluid prescription for kidney stone prevention – How to lower supersaturation with fluids

Treatment of idiopathic calcium stones Integration of diet, fluids, meds to control supersaturation

Plaque and Plugs

Role in kidney stones

Video article: How stones form – A video I made that shows all

Chapter 2: How kidney stones form – Good review of the topic, medium difficulty

Plaque

How Plaque FormsHigh level but readable, very up to date

Randall’s Plaque – Detailed review, great pictures

Role of innate immunity in plaque formation – For experts

Patterns of tissue mineralization – For experts

Plugs

IMCD and BD plugs: Do they have a role in stone formation? For experts

Nephrocalcinosis – Almost always from plugging as well as stones; general readers

Crystal Inhibitors

Kidney stone matrix proteins – For experts

The grand inhibitor – For experts

Citrate and the Ostwald limit – For experts

 

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